**Single Exponential Smoothing Method:**

Since single exponential smoothing method is an **one period
ahead** forcaster, we modified it and used the actual demand
of the **most recently known period** (e.g., period 12
in our database) for future periods' (14 and after) forecast.

**Double Exponential Smoothing Method:**

Similar to single exponential smoothing method, the double
exponential smoothing method is an **one period ahead**
forecast, we used the last known period's **a** and **b**
values for future periods' (14 and after) forecast.

**Triple Exponential Smoothing Method:**

**Where:**

- Xt is the
**actual** demand for period t.
- Ft is the
**forecast** demand for period t.
- Alpha is the smoothing coefficient.
- k is the number of periods ahead forecast.

**Reference:**

"Basic Programs for Production
and Operations Management," by Pantumsinchai, P.,
Hassan, M. Z., and Gupta, I. D., Prentice-Hall, 1983,
pp. 65-66.
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